2007 African - Telecommunications, Infrastructure, Fixed Voice and Data Markets

Publication Overview

This annual report offers a wealth of information on telecommunications infrastructure in 34 African countries and their fixed voice and data markets. Subjects covered include:

  • Key Statistics
  • Brief overviews of the major telecommunications carriers and service providers;
  • National telecom networks;
  • Wireless Local Loop (WLL) systems;
  • Next Generation Networks (NGNs);
  • International infrastructure;
  • VSAT networks;
  • Datacomms Infrastructure;
  • Leased Lines, ISDN, Frame Relay, ATM, DSL;
  • Public and value-added data services.

Executive Summary

While being the worlds most rapidly growing market for mobile telephony, Africa is also home to some of the fastest growing fixed-line markets in the world, albeit from a small base. The continent still has some of the world’s lowest penetration rates in both market sectors.

The difficulties of rolling out fixed-line networks across its vast land mass have meant that by early 2007 mobile users constituted almost 90% of all African telephone subscribers. However, as lower and lower income groups are being targeted, a price-sensitive market for lower-cost fixed or limited-mobility services is emerging.

A surge in demand for Internet access and broadband capabilities is accelerating this fixed-line renaissance in some of Africa’s more advanced markets. Despite reasonable growth of the traditional fixed-line markets in some countries, subscriber access to both voice and data services is shifting more and more to fixed-wireless solutions as a substitute for inadequate fixed-line infrastructure.

Several international fibre projects currently under development will deliver the necessary bandwidth to Africa, increase competition in this sector and bring down costs. Several countries have embarked on national fibre backbone rollouts to take new services beyond the capital cities. However, satellite will continue to play a significant role in reaching Africa’s extensive rural and remote areas.

Foreign investors are scrambling for positions in this very lucrative market as liberalisation continues, national telcos are being privatised and new operating licenses issued.

Key highlights:

  • Fixed-line market forecasts to 2010 and 2015 for 16 African countries;
  • Converged licensing regimes increase competition in the fixed-line sector;
  • Several new submarine fibre projects currently under development will improve the supply of international bandwidth at drastically reduced prices;
  • Privatised national telcos are highly profitable;
  • Fixed-line incumbents are expanding WLL systems and pushing fixed-mobile convergence;
  • Major WiMAX launches planned for 2008;
  • Morocco’s second and third fixed-line operators gain 34% market share within six months after launch.

Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Morocco - 1994 - 2007

Year Fixed lines (MT) FWA (Meditel, Wana) Teledensity
1994 1,007,000 n/a 3.9%
1995 1,128,000 n/a 4.2%
1996 1,208,000 n/a 4.5%
1997 1,301,000 n/a 4.7%
1998 1,393,000 n/a 5.0%
1999 1,471,000 n/a 5.3%
2000 1,425,000 n/a 5.0%
2001 1,191,300 n/a 4.1%
2002 1,127,400 n/a 3.8%
2003 1,219,200 n/a 4.0%
2004 1,308,600 n/a 4.2%
2005 1,341,200 n/a 4.3%
2006 1,266,100 100,000 4.4%
2007 (Jun) 1,280,000 660,900 6.0%
(Source: BuddeComm based on ITU, ANRT and industry data)

Data in this report is the latest available at the time of preparation and may not be for the current year.

Table of Contents

1.FORECASTS
1.1Fixed-line market forecasts
1.1.1Notes on scenario forecasts
1.1.2Algeria forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.3Angola forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.4Benin forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.5Cameroon forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.6Egypt forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.7Ethiopia forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.8Gabon forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.9Ghana forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.10Kenya forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.11Madagascar forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.12Morocco forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.13Nigeria forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.14Rwanda forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.15Senegal forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.16South Africa forecasts – fixed-line services
1.1.17Swaziland forecasts – fixed-line market
2.FIXED VOICE AND DATA MARKETS
2.1Overview of Africa’s telecom market
2.1.1The wireless explosion
2.1.2The beginning of a fixed-line renaissance
2.1.3Internet and broadband market
2.1.4Foreign investments in telecommunications
2.2Telecommunications infrastructure
2.2.1Domestic infrastructure
2.2.2International infrastructure
2.3Overview of the data market
2.3.1Traffic growth limited by infrastructure
2.3.2VSAT networks – an instant infrastructure solution for Africa
2.3.3Availability of advanced data services
3.ALGERIA
3.1Telecommunications market
3.1.1Overview of Algeria’s telecom market
3.2Fixed network operators in Algeria
3.2.1Algerie Telecom
3.2.2CAT (Lacom)
3.3Telecommunications infrastructure
3.3.1National telecom network
3.3.2International infrastructure
4.ANGOLA
4.1Telecommunications market
4.1.1Overview of Angola’s telecom market
4.2Fixed network operators in Angola
4.2.1Angola Telecom
4.2.2Fixed wireless operators
4.3Telecommunications infrastructure
4.3.1National telecom network
4.3.2International infrastructure
5.BENIN
5.1Telecommunications market
5.1.1Overview of Benin’s telecom market
5.2Fixed-line operators in Benin
5.2.1Benin Telecoms
5.3Telecommunications infrastructure
5.3.1National telecom network
5.3.2International infrastructure
6.BOTSWANA
6.1Telecommunications market
6.1.1Overview of Botswana’s telecom market
6.2Fixed network operator in Botswana
6.2.1Botswana Telecommunications Corporation (BTC)
6.3Telecommunications infrastructure
6.3.1National telecom network
6.3.2International infrastructure
6.4Data market
6.4.1Managed data services
6.4.2VSAT networks
7.BURKINA FASO
7.1Telecommunications market
7.1.1Overview of Burkina Faso’s telecom market
7.2Telecommunications infrastructure
7.2.1National telecom network
7.2.2International infrastructure
8.CAMEROON
8.1Telecommunications market
8.1.1Overview of Cameroon’s telecom market
8.2Fixed-line operators in Cameroon
8.2.1Camtel
8.2.2Pastel
8.3Telecommunications infrastructure
8.3.1National infrastructure
8.3.2International infrastructure
8.4Data market
8.4.1Campac
8.4.2VSAT networks
9.CHAD
9.1Telecommunications market
9.1.1Overview of Chad’s telecom market
9.2Fixed network operator in Chad
9.2.1Sotel Tchad
9.3Telecommunications infrastructure
9.3.1National telecom network
9.3.2International infrastructure
10.COTE D’IVOIRE
10.1Telecommunications market
10.1.1Overview of Côte d’Ivoire’s telecom market
10.2Fixed network operators in Côte d’Ivoire
10.2.1CI-Telecom
10.2.2Arobase
10.3Telecommunications infrastructure
10.3.1National telecom network
10.3.2International infrastructure
11.DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO
11.1Telecommunications market
11.1.1Overview of DRC’s telecom market
11.2Telecommunications infrastructure
11.2.1National infrastructure
11.2.2International infrastructure
12.EGYPT
12.1Telecommunications market
12.1.1Overview of Egypt’s telecom market
12.2Fixed network operators in Egypt
12.2.1Telecom Egypt
12.2.2Orascom Telecom
12.3Telecommunications infrastructure
12.3.1National telecom network
12.3.2International infrastructure
12.3.3Fixed voice market
12.4Data market
12.4.1Data service operators
12.4.2VSAT networks
12.4.3Data centres
13.ETHIOPIA
13.1Telecommunications market
13.1.1Overview of Ethiopia’s telecom market
13.2Fixed network operator in Ethiopia
13.2.1Ethiopian Telecommunications Corporation
13.3Telecommunications infrastructure
13.3.1National telecom network
13.3.2International communication links
13.4Data market
13.4.1Digital Data Network
13.4.2PADISnet
13.4.3VSAT networks
14.GABON
14.1Telecommunications market
14.1.1Overview of Gabon’s telecom market
14.2Fixed network operators in Gabon
14.2.1Gabon Télécom
14.3Telecommunications infrastructure
14.3.1National telecom network
14.3.2International infrastructure
15.GAMBIA
15.1Telecommunications market
15.1.1Overview of Gambia’s telecom market
15.2Fixed network operators in Gambia
15.2.1Gambia Telecommunications Co Ltd
15.3Telecommunications infrastructure
15.3.1National telecom network
15.3.2International infrastructure
16.GHANA
16.1Telecommunications market
16.1.1Overview of Ghana’s telecom market
16.2Fixed network operators in Ghana
16.2.1Ghana Telecom
16.2.2Western Telesystems Ghana Ltd (Westel)
16.2.3Capital Telecom Ltd
16.3Telecommunications infrastructure
16.3.1National telecom network
16.3.2Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
16.3.3The eCARE project
16.3.4International infrastructure
16.4Data market
16.4.1Data infrastructure
16.4.2VSAT networks
17.KENYA
17.1Telecommunications market
17.1.1Overview of Kenya’s telecom market
17.2Fixed network operators in Kenya
17.2.1Telkom Kenya Ltd
17.2.2Fixed-wireless operators
17.3Telecommunications infrastructure
17.3.1National telecom networks
17.3.2International infrastructure
17.4Data market
17.4.1Public Data Network Operators (PDNO)
18.LESOTHO
18.1Telecommunications market
18.1.1Overview of Lesotho’s telecom market
18.2Fixed network operator in Lesotho
18.2.1Telecom Lesotho (Pty) Ltd
18.3Telecommunications infrastructure
18.3.1National telecom network
18.3.2International infrastructure
19.LIBYA
19.1Telecommunications market
19.1.1Overview of Libya’s telecom market
19.2Telecommunications infrastructure
19.2.1National telecom network
19.2.2International infrastructure
20.MADAGASCAR
20.1Telecommunications market
20.1.1Overview of Madagascar’s telecom market
20.2Fixed network operators in Madagascar
20.2.1Telecom Malagasy
20.3Telecommunications infrastructure
20.3.1National telecom network
20.3.2International infrastructure
20.4Data market
20.4.1Data licensees
21.MALAWI
21.1Telecommunications market
21.1.1Overview of Malawi’s telecom market
21.2Fixed network operator
21.2.1Malawi Telecommunications Ltd (MTL)
21.3Telecommunications infrastructure
21.3.1National telecom network
21.3.2International infrastructure
22.MAURITIUS
22.1Telecommunications market
22.1.1Overview of Mauritian telecom market
22.2Fixed network operators in Mauritius
22.2.1Mauritius Telecom Group
22.2.2Mahanagar Telephone (Mauritius) Ltd
22.3Telecommunications infrastructure
22.3.1National telecom networks
22.3.2International infrastructure
22.4Data market
22.4.1Data network infrastructure
23.MOROCCO
23.1Telecommunications market
23.1.1Overview of Morocco’s telecom market
23.2Fixed network operators in Morocco
23.2.1Maroc Telecom
23.2.2Medi Telecom (Meditel)
23.2.3Maroc Connect (Wana)
23.3Telecommunications infrastructure
23.3.1National telecom network
23.3.2Public call offices (teleboutiques)
23.3.3International infrastructure
24.MOZAMBIQUE
24.1Telecommunications market
24.1.1Overview of Mozambique’s telecom market
24.2Fixed network operator
24.2.1Telecomunicações De Moçambique (TDM)
24.3Telecommunications infrastructure
24.3.1National telecom network
24.3.2International infrastructure
24.4Data market
24.4.1Overview
25.NAMIBIA
25.1Telecommunications market
25.1.1Overview of Namibia’s telecom market
25.2Fixed network operator
25.2.1Telecom Namibia Ltd
25.3Telecommunications infrastructure
25.3.1National telecom network
25.3.2International infrastructure
25.4Data market
25.4.1Data services
25.4.2Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
25.4.3Teleconferencing
25.4.4VSAT networks
26.NIGERIA
26.1Telecommunications market
26.1.1Overview of Nigeria’s telecom market
26.2Fixed network operators in Nigeria
26.2.1Market analysis – 2007
26.2.2Nigerian Telecommunications Ltd (Nitel)
26.2.3Globacom Ltd
26.2.4VGC Communications
26.2.5National Long-Distance Operators (LDOs)
26.3Private fixed-wireless operators
26.3.1Cell Communications Ltd (Cellcom)
26.3.2Intercellular Nigeria Ltd
26.3.3Mobitel Nigeria Ltd
26.3.4Multi-Links Telecommunications Ltd (MLTL)
26.3.5Reliance Telecommunications Ltd
26.3.6Starcomms Ltd
26.3.7Sirius Wireless Ltd
26.3.8Bourdex Telecommunications
26.3.9Regional FWA operators
26.4Telecommunications infrastructure
26.4.1Continued massive investment required to meet demand
26.4.2Nitel’s national telecom network
26.4.3National Information Infrastructure Backbone (NIIB)
26.4.4National Rural Telephony Program (NRTP)
26.4.5MTN’s national backbone (Y’helloBahn)
26.4.6Globacom’s fibre network
26.4.7Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN)
26.4.8Backbone Connectivity Network (BCN)
26.4.9Private networks
26.4.10Next Generation Networks (NGNs), priple play
26.4.11International infrastructure
26.5Data market
26.5.1Data infrastructure
26.5.2VSAT networks
27.RWANDA
27.1Telecommunications market
27.1.1Overview of Rwanda’s telecom market
27.2Fixed network operators in Rwanda
27.2.1RwandaTel/Terracom
27.2.2Artel Communications
27.3Telecommunications infrastructure
27.3.1National telecom networks
27.3.2International infrastructure
28.SENEGAL
28.1Telecommunications market
28.1.1Overview of Senegal’s telecom market
28.2Fixed network operators in Senegal
28.2.1Sonatel
28.3Telecommunications infrastructure
28.3.1National telecom network
28.3.2International infrastructure
29.SOUTH AFRICA
29.1Telecommunications market
29.1.1Overview of South Africa’s telecom market
29.2Fixed network operators in South Africa
29.2.1Telkom SA Ltd
29.2.2Second National Operator (SNO) – Neotel
29.2.3Rumours of a Third National Operator (TNO) – InfraCo
29.2.4National private networks
29.2.5Carrier of carriers
29.3Telecommunications infrastructure
29.3.1Telkom’s national telecom network
29.3.2Municipal networks
29.3.3International infrastructure
29.3.4Call centres
30.SUDAN
30.1Telecommunications market
30.1.1Overview of Sudan’s telecom market
30.2Fixed network operators in Sudan
30.2.1Sudan Telecommunications Co Ltd
30.2.2Canartel (Canar Telecom)
30.3Telecommunications infrastructure
30.3.1National telecom network
30.3.2International infrastructure
30.4Southern Sudan
30.4.1Network of the World (NOW)
30.4.2Gemtel
31.SWAZILAND
31.1Telecommunications market
31.1.1Overview of Swaziland’s telecom market
31.2Fixed network operator in Swaziland
31.2.1Swazi Telecom
31.3Telecommunications infrastructure
31.3.1National telecom network
31.3.2International infrastructure
31.4Data communications
31.4.1Overview
32.TANZANIA
32.1Telecommunications market
32.1.1Overview of Tanzania’s telecom market
32.2Fixed network operators
32.2.1Tanzania Telecommunications Co Ltd (TTCL)
32.2.2Zanzibar Telecommunications Corporation
32.3Telecommunications infrastructure
32.3.1National telecom network
32.3.2International infrastructure
32.4Data market
32.4.1Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) networks
32.4.2Data operators
33.TUNISIA
33.1Telecommunications market
33.1.1Overview of Tunisia’s telecom market
33.1.2World Economic Forum ranking
33.2Telecommunications infrastructure
33.2.1National telecom network
33.2.2International infrastructure
33.3Data market
33.3.1Overview
34.UGANDA
34.1.1Overview of Uganda’s telecom market
34.2Fixed network operators in Uganda
34.2.1Uganda Telecom Ltd
34.2.2MTN Uganda Ltd
34.3Telecommunications infrastructure
34.3.1National telecom network
34.3.2International infrastructure
34.4Data market
34.4.1Data infrastructure
35.ZAMBIA
35.1Telecommunications market
35.1.1Overview of Zambia’s telecom market
35.2Fixed network operator
35.2.1Zambia Telecommunications Ltd (Zamtel)
35.3Telecommunications infrastructure
35.3.1National telecom network
35.3.2International infrastructure
36.ZIMBABWE
36.1Telecommunications market
36.1.1Overview of Zimbabwe’s telecom market
36.2Fixed network operators in Zimbabwe
36.2.1TelOne
36.2.2TeleAccess Zimbabwe (Pvt) Ltd
36.2.3Afritell
36.3Telecommunications infrastructure
36.3.1National telecom network
36.3.2International infrastructure
36.4Data communications
36.4.1Data licensees
37.GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS
Exhibit 1 – African countries providing advanced data services – 2007
Exhibit 2 – National and regional fibre networks in Egypt
Exhibit 3 – Data service provider licences in Egypt with year of issue
Exhibit 4 – Eskom’s licence dispute
Exhibit 5 – Analysis of Maroc Telecom’s fixed-line rollercoaster ride
Exhibit 6 – Transtel’s communications network
Exhibit 7 – Tunisia’s strategy to promote the Information Society
Exhibit 8 – VSAT users in Uganda


Table 1 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Algeria – 2010; 2015
Table 2 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Angola – 2010; 2015
Table 3 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Benin – 2010; 2015
Table 4 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Cameroon – 2010; 2015
Table 5 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Egypt – 2010; 2015
Table 6 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Ethiopia – 2010; 2015
Table 7 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Gabon – 2010; 2015
Table 8 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Ghana – 2010; 2015
Table 9 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Kenya – 2010; 2015
Table 10 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Madagascar – 2010; 2015
Table 11 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Morocco – 2010; 2015
Table 12 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Nigeria – 2010; 2015
Table 13 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Rwanda – 2010; 2015
Table 14 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Senegal – 2010; 2015
Table 15 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth South Africa – 2010; 2015
Table 16 – Forecast fixed-line and fixed-wireless subscriber growth Swaziland – 2010; 2015
Table 17 – Telephone network statistics in Algeria – 2006
Table 18 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Algeria – 1995 - 2006
Table 19 – Telephone network statistics in Angola – 2006
Table 20 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Angola – 1996 - 2006
Table 21 – Telephone network statistics in Benin – 2006
Table 22 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Benin – 1995 - 2006
Table 23 – Telephone network statistics in Botswana – March 2006
Table 24 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Botswana – 1995 - 2006
Table 25 – Telephone network statistics in Burkina Faso – 2006
Table 26 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Burkina Faso – 1995 - 2006
Table 27 – Telephone network statistics in Cameroon – September 2006
Table 28 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Cameroon – 1995 - 2006
Table 29 – Telephone network statistics in Chad – 2006
Table 30 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Chad – 1995 - 2006
Table 31 – Telephone network statistics in Cote d’Ivoire – 2005
Table 32 – Fixed lines in service, teledensity and ISDN subscribers Cote d’Ivoire – 1995 - 2005
Table 33 – Telephone network statistics in the DRC – 2006
Table 34 – Fixed telephone lines and teledensity in the DRC – 1995 - 2006
Table 35 – Telephone network statistics in Egypt – March 2007
Table 36 – Telecom Egypt key performance indicators – 2003 - 2006
Table 37 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Egypt – 1995 - 2007
Table 38 – Public payphones per operator in Egypt – 2002 - 2007
Table 39 – Telephone network statistics in Ethiopia – 2006
Table 40 – Domestic and international telephone traffic in Ethiopia – 1994 - 2005
Table 41 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Ethiopia – 1995 - 2006
Table 42 – Telephone network statistics in Gabon – 2006
Table 43 – Gabon Télécom fixed-line revenue – 2003 - 2005
Table 44 – Fixed-lines in service and teledensity in Gabon – 1997 - 2006
Table 45 – Telephone network statistics in Gambia – 2006
Table 46 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Gambia – 1995 - 2001; 2005 - 2006
Table 47 – Telephone network statistics in Ghana – 2006
Table 48 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Ghana – 1995 - 2006
Table 49 – Telephone network statistics in Kenya – June 2006
Table 50 – Fixed lines in service and annual change in Kenya – 1995 - 2006
Table 51 – Telephone network statistics in Lesotho – 2006
Table 52 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Lesotho – 1995 - 2006
Table 53 – Telephone network statistics in Libya – 2006
Table 54 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Libya – 1995 - 2006
Table 55 – Telephone network statistics in Madagascar – 2006
Table 56 – Fixed lines, teledensity and subscribers, public payphones, traffic and revenue in Madagascar – 1998 - 2006
Table 57 – Telephone network statistics in Malawi – 2006
Table 58 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Malawi – 1995 - 2006
Table 59 – Telephone network statistics in Mauritius – 2006
Table 60 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Mauritius – 1995 - 2006
Table 61 – Telephone network statistics in Morocco – June 2007
Table 62 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Morocco – 1994 - 2007
Table 63 – Telephone network statistics in Mozambique – 2006
Table 64 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Mozambique – 1995 - 2006
Table 65 – Telephone network statistics in Namibia – 2006
Table 66 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Namibia – 1995 - 2006
Table 67 – Telephone network statistics in Nigeria – January 2007
Table 68 – Fixed lines in service per Nitel and PTOs and teledensity – 1995 - 2007
Table 69 – Telephone network statistics in Rwanda – June 2006
Table 70 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Rwanda – 1999 - 2006
Table 71 – Telephone network statistics in Senegal – March 2007
Table 72 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Senegal – 1995 - 2007
Table 73 – Telephone network statistics in South Africa – March 2007
Table 74 – Telkom SA shareholder structure – March 2007
Table 75 – Telkom SA’s fixed line data revenue and annual growth – 2002 - 2007
Table 76 – Telkom SA ISDN channels – 2000 - 2007
Table 77 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in South Africa – 1999 - 2007
Table 78 – Telephone network statistics in Sudan – 2006
Table 79 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Sudan – 1994 - 2006
Table 80 – Telephone network statistics in Swaziland – June 2006
Table 81 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Swaziland – 1995 - 2006
Table 82 – Telephone network statistics in Tanzania – 2006
Table 83 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Tanzania – 1995 - 2006
Table 84 – Telephone network statistics in Tunisia – March 2007
Table 85 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Tunisia – 1995 - 2007
Table 86 – Telephone network statistics in Uganda – 2006
Table 87 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Uganda – 1995 - 2006
Table 88 – Total data uplink and downlink capacity in Uganda – 1998 - 2004
Table 89 – Telephone network statistics in Zambia – 2006
Table 90 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Zambia – 1995 - 2006
Table 91 – Telephone network statistics in Zimbabwe – 2006
Table 92 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Zimbabwe – 1995 - 2006

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Number of pages 259

Status Archived

Last updated 20 Nov 2007
Update History

Analyst: Stephen McNamara

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