Technology - Internet - Volume 3 - IP Techniques

Publication Overview

This new Biennial Report covers advanced Internet Protocol techniques including: IPv4 address space, packet classification in routers, Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM), Tree-Bitmap Algorithm, Network Address Translation (NAT), NAT traversal techniques, Simple Traversal of UDP over NAT (STUN ), Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN) Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE), deep packet inspection, Application Level Gateways (ALGs), interior gateway protocols, IS-IS, OSPF, Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), Routing Information Base (RIB), link-state and distance-vector routing protocols, Autonomous System networks, Regional Internet Registries, the transit and border routers of the Default Free Zone (DFZ), multihomed border routers, the ‘global BGP routing table’, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE), MPLS Fast Rerouting and Pseudo-Wires, Label Switched Paths (LSPs), stacked MPLS labels, Penultimate Hop Popping, Forwarding Equivalent Class (FEC), Traffic Engineering (TE), MPLS Layer 2 Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), Cisco’s NGN and ‘Video 2.0’, Set-Top Boxes (STBs), Protocol Independent Multicasting with Source Specific Multicast (PIM-SSM), Internet Group Management Protocol (GMPv2) multicast requests, IntServ, DiffServ, DiffServ CodePoint (DSCP), Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN), E.164, ENUM, Regular Expressions, IPTEL, TRIP, E164.org, SIP Broker, Distributed Universal Number Discovery (DUNDi), Asterisk, AsteriskNOW, Evolution PBX, Trixbox, SIP Express Router, SipX and Yate.

 

This Technology Handbook also contains discussion of:

  • Difficulty of developing applications which traverse NAT.
  • Example of MPLS path establishment with RSVP-TE.
  • Tutorial on BGP operation.
  • Next Generation Network (NGN) work by the ITU, ECMA and ETSI-TISPAN.
  • Cisco’s IP-multicast-based NGN which supports IPTV and Video-on-Demand (VoD).
  • Review of major VoIP server platforms.

Researcher:- Robin Whittle (1st edition)

 

Executive Summary

This handbook is intended to support technical and management people in understanding the major IP technologies used in VoIP networks, video multicast systems and many other aspects of Internet service delivery and backbone operations.

We begin by discussing the IPv4 addressing system, the looming exhaustion of fresh IPv4 address space and the methods routers use to classify each packet in order to decide which peer router to forward it to. We discuss the two link-state internal routing protocols: Intermediate-System to Intermediate-System (IS-IS) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). We explain the operation of the path-vector Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing system which links all ISP and end-user networks to form the Internet. We discuss the workload of transit routers and multihomed border routers, both of which are described as being in the ‘Default Free Zone’. The communications, computing and data storage burdens of these routers is the primary reason for the need for a new routing and addressing architecture for the Internet.

Network Address Translation (NAT) firewalls are commonly used in corporate and home networks, such as to allow a single-IP address DSL service to be used by multiple computers. We discuss NAT operation and several Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards which are intended to help application developers traverse the barriers imposed by NAT. NAT adoption is increasingly ubiquitous due to the IPv4 address shortage and this causes major difficulties for the reliable implementation of peer-to-peer and real-time applications, including VoIP, presence and instant messaging systems.

We discuss IPsec security which provides authentication and encryption within the TCP/IP protocol suite itself, the operation of the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Protocol and the use of hash functions with digital signatures for authentication.

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is an important IETF protocol by which traffic can be transported across large networks with full Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees and minimal forwarding effort by routers. We explain MPLS in detail, together with the Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) approach to establishing the label-switched paths. We also discuss MPLS Fast Rerouting and Pseudo-Wires and how QoS is implemented with MPLS using IntServ and DiffServ.

We discuss Next Generation Networks (NGNs) – a term which standards bodies and companies use in rather different ways. We discuss Cisco’s NGN architecture and its support of IPVT multicasting and contrast this with some yet to be implemented NGN proposals by standards bodies, including ETSI-TISPAN, the ITU and ECMA.

We discuss VoIP in a variety of settings, including residential and SOHO, carrier backbone, wireless and mobile, for in-office replacement of Private Automatic Branch Exchange (PABX) systems and Centrex. The numbering and addressing arrangements for VoIP are more diverse and complex than those of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). We discuss the conventional E.164 numbering scheme, SIP addressing, ENUM mapping of E.164 addresses to the Internet Domain Name System, and some lightweight alternatives to the official, slowly deployed, ENUM system.

We describe the Real Time Protocol (RTP), H.323, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and the Session Description Protocol (SDP) and the various network elements which constitute a complete VoIP system. We also discuss other major voice protocols, including Skype, the Asterisk inter-exchange protocol IAX2, XMPP, Jabber and Jingle.

This handbook aims to convey a working understanding of many of the techniques which are vital to understanding and planning Internet services, especially those based on VoIP and other real-time forms of communication.

Table of Contents

  • 1. TCP, UDP & SCTP
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 TCP/IP packets
      • 1.2.1 IPv4 header
      • 1.2.2 Routing
      • 1.2.3 UDP packet
      • 1.2.4 TCP
    • 1.3 IP addresses
      • 1.3.1 Overview
      • 1.3.2 TCP and UDP port numbers
      • 1.3.3 Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
      • 1.3.4 Network and broadcast address
    • 1.4 Transition to IPv6
      • 1.4.1 IPv6 islands in an IPv4 sea
      • 1.4.2 Dual stack networks
      • 1.4.3 Avoiding NAT – Network Address Translation
      • 1.4.4 IPv6 benefits
  • 2. IPv4 & Packet Classification
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 IPv4 - the current TCP/IP version
      • 2.2.1 Address space
      • 2.2.2 Merging networks with private addresses
      • 2.2.3 IPv4 address utilisation
    • 2.3 Packet classification
      • 2.3.1 The workload of high end routers
      • 2.3.2 Classification tasks for IP packets
      • 2.3.3 ASIC-based packet classification
      • 2.3.4 TCAM-based packet classification
  • 3. Network Address Translation (NAT)
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Implementation and lack of standards
      • 3.2.1 Deployment in ADSL and HFC cable modems
      • 3.2.2 BEHAVE
      • 3.2.3 NAT discouraged for IPv6
      • 3.2.4 NAT for security
      • 3.2.5 Multiple hosts behind one IP address
    • 3.3 Operation with TCP
      • 3.3.1 Example of NAT handling a TCP session
      • 3.3.2 NAT typically precludes running local servers
      • 3.3.3 TCP is easily handled by NAT
    • 3.4 UDP packets and NAT
      • 3.4.1 Multicast streaming media and NAT
      • 3.4.2 Deep packet inspection
    • 3.5 NAT breaks fundamental requirements for Internet communications
      • 3.5.1 Difficulties with Application Level Gateways
      • 3.5.2 The pressure for NAT adoption
    • 3.6 NAT Traversal Techniques
      • 3.6.1 Universal Plug and Play
      • 3.6.2 Middlebox Communications (MIDCOM)
      • 3.6.3 Simple Traversal of UDP over NAT (STUN)
      • 3.6.4 Traversal Using Relay NAT (TURN)
      • 3.6.5 Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE)
  • 4. OPSF, IS-IS & BGP Routing Protocols
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Interior Routing Protocols
      • 4.2.1 Forwarding Information Base (FIB)
      • 4.2.2 Routing Information Base (RIB)
      • 4.2.3 Link-state and distance-vector protocols
      • 4.2.4 IS-IS
      • 4.2.5 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
    • 4.3 The global BGP routing system
      • 4.3.1 Edge networks
      • 4.3.2 Autonomous systems
      • 4.3.3 Transit routers
      • 4.3.4 Border routers
      • 4.3.5 Internal and external BGP messages
      • 4.3.6 Multihoming
      • 4.3.7 The Default Free Zone (DFZ)
      • 4.3.8 The global BGP routing table
      • 4.3.9 Efficient allocation of IP addresses versus routability
    • 4.4 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
      • 4.4.1 Path vector protocol
      • 4.4.2 Simplicity and strengths
      • 4.4.3 Difficulty scaling to large networks
      • 4.4.4 Problems with frequent updates
      • 4.4.5 Barrier to increased address utilisation
  • 5. IPsec Security
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 IPsec and other standards
      • 5.2.1 Contrast with SSL/TLS
      • 5.2.2 Contrast with PGP or GPG
      • 5.2.3 IPsec in Layer 3
      • 5.2.4 3rd generation RFC standards
    • 5.3 Symmetrical cryptography
      • 5.3.1 64 and 128 bit keys
    • 5.4 Public key cryptography
      • 5.4.1 Generating the key pair
      • 5.4.2 Generating and sending the symmetrical key
    • 5.5 Hash algorithms and integrity checking
      • 5.5.1 Checksums and Cyclic Redundancy Checking (CRC)
      • 5.5.2 Cryptographic hashing
    • 5.6 IPsec’s modes of operation
      • 5.6.1 VPN tunnel applications
      • 5.6.2 SSL/TLS and NAT firewall compatibility
      • 5.6.3 AH and ESP
      • 5.6.4 Transport Mode
      • 5.6.5 Tunnel Mode
    • 5.7 Weaknesses of IPsec
      • 5.7.1 Schneier’s and Ferguson’s critique
      • 5.7.2 IKEv1’s Aggressive Mode compromised
  • 6. MPLS Architecture
    • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.1.1 More efficient handling of IP packets
      • 6.1.2 Generalised MPLS – GMPLS
    • 6.2 Carrying MPLS labelled packets
      • 6.2.1 Types of packets which may be labelled
      • 6.2.2 Connection oriented Label Switched Paths (LSPs)
      • 6.2.3 Stacked MPLS labels
      • 6.2.4 Label Switched Path as an alternative to IP routing
    • 6.3 MPLS terminology
    • 6.4 MPLS header structure
    • 6.5 Label Switched Path in operation
      • 6.5.1 Classification and labelling at the ingress router
      • 6.5.2 Simple progressing at transit routers
      • 6.5.3 Egress processing
      • 6.5.4 Penultimate hop popping
      • 6.5.5 Adding another MPLS label
      • 6.5.6 QoS bits in the MPLS header
      • 6.5.7 Key benefits of MPLS forwarding
    • 6.6 Forwarding Equivalent Class (FEC)
      • 6.6.1 QoS and CoS attributes built into the LSP
      • 6.6.2 Traffic engineering
  • 7. MPLS RSVP-TE, Pseudowires, VPNs & NGNs
    • 7.1 RSVP-TE – establishing the Label Switched Path (LSP)
      • 7.1.1 RSVP-TE standards
      • 7.1.2 The PATH message
      • 7.1.3 The RESV message
      • 7.1.4 Rerouting and upgrading and LSP
    • 7.2 MPLS Fast Rerouting - RFC 4090
      • 7.2.1 One-to-one backup – detour
      • 7.2.2 Facility backup – bypass tunnel
    • 7.3 MPLS Pseudo-Wires
    • 7.4 MPLS Layer 2 VPNs
      • 7.4.1 Label stacking
    • 7.5 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
      • 7.5.1 IPv4, IPv6 and practicality
      • 7.5.2 Cisco’s NGN and IPTV
      • 7.5.3 Difficulty with non-Internet services
      • 7.5.4 The ITU’s NGN definition
      • 7.5.5 ECMA’s Public NGN
      • 7.5.6 ETSI-TISPAN’s NGN standards
      • 7.5.7 IETF NGN activity
  • 8. Quality of Service
    • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.1.1 Reservation and guaranteed QoS – IntServ
      • 8.1.2 Prioritisation without guarantees – DiffServ and Class of Service
      • 8.1.3 IP not designed for QoS
      • 8.1.4 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
    • 8.2 Methods of applying QoS to IP
      • 8.2.1 QoS attributes
      • 8.2.2 IntServ – guaranteed QoS
      • 8.2.3 DiffServ and Class of Service (CoS)
    • 8.3 MPLS with DiffServ
      • 8.3.1 MPLS’s EXP bits
      • 8.3.2 EXP-Inferred-PSC (E-LSP)
      • 8.3.3 Label-Only-Inferred-PSC (L-LSP)
      • 8.3.4 Mapping IP DiffServ to EXP bits
    • 8.4 Ethernet VLAN QoS
    • 8.5 WiFi 802.11e QoS
    • 8.6 Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN)
  • 9. VoIP Applications, ENUM & Addressing
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Business and technical models
      • 9.2.1 Residential and SoHo
      • 9.2.2 Wireless and mobile VoIP
      • 9.2.3 PABX and Centrex replacement
      • 9.2.4 Telecommunications carrier VoIP
    • 9.3 Numbering and addressing
      • 9.3.1 E.164
      • 9.3.2 ENUM
      • 9.3.3 IPTEL and TRIP
      • 9.3.4 E164.org
      • 9.3.5 SIP Broker
      • 9.3.6 Distributed Universal Number Discovery (DUNDi)
    • 9.4 VoIP telephony application platforms
      • 9.4.1 Asterisk
      • 9.4.2 SIP Express Router (SER)
      • 9.4.3 SipX
      • 9.4.4 YATE
  • 10. VoIP Protocols
    • 10.1 Real Time Protocol (RTP)
    • 10.2 Real Time Control Protocol (RTCP)
      • 10.2.1 RTCP XR
    • 10.3 RTP profiles
    • 10.4 H.323
      • 10.4.1 Gatekeepers
      • 10.4.2 NAT Traversal
    • 10.5 Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
      • 10.5.1 HTTP-like protocol
      • 10.5.2 Session Description Protocol (SDP)
      • 10.5.3 SIP-T
      • 10.5.4 SIP User Agent entities
      • 10.5.5 SIP servers
      • 10.5.6 Back-to-back User Agent (B2BUA)
      • 10.5.7 RTP proxy
      • 10.5.8 SIP spam
    • 10.6 NAT traversal for SIP and RTP
    • 10.7 Inter-Exchange Protocol 2 (IAX2)
      • 10.7.1 Trunking
    • 10.8 XMPP, Jabber and Jingle
    • 10.9 Skype
      • 10.9.1 Distributed architecture
      • 10.9.2 Criticism
  • 11. Glossary of Abbreviations
  • Exhibit 1 – An 8 address TCP/IP subnet
  • Exhibit 2 – The five regional Internet registries

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Annual Publication Profile

Technologies

Internet
Telecoms Infrastructure

Number of pages 138

Status Archived

Last updated 27 May 2008
Update History

Analyst: Robin Whittle

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