Technology - Internet 3 - Web browsing, Routing & IPv6


We explain the functions of the TCP and HTTP protocols by way of a web-browsing example. TCP is the basis of most higher level protocols, including FTP, SMTP (email) etc. We also discuss the routing system with a traceroute example. We discuss the adoption of IPv6, dual stack networks and benefits including the potential for Mobile IP and avoidance of Network Address Translation (NAT).

Table of Contents

  • 1. Synopsis
  • 2. A web browsing example of TCP and HTTP
    • 2.1 Client-server computing
      • 2.1.1 Establishing the TCP session
      • 2.1.2 The HTTP request
      • 2.1.3 Sending the file to the browser
      • 2.1.4 HTTP 1.0 and 1.1
      • 2.1.5 Name-based virtual hosting
  • 3. Routing, speed and reliability
    • 3.1 Traceroute and Ping
      • 3.1.1 International packets may traverse 20 or more routers
      • 3.1.2 Routers adapting to conditions
      • 3.1.3 TCP starts slow and adjusts speed upwards
  • 4. Flexibility and contrasts with the phone system
    • 4.1 TCP/IP’s flexibility and power
      • 4.1.1 Multiple sessions to multiple computers
      • 4.1.2 Sub-second set-up times
      • 4.1.3 Reliability of delivery
      • 4.1.4 Phone network uses simple terminals
      • 4.1.5 TCP/IP: User control of functionality
      • 4.1.6 TCP/IP’s more dynamic technical standards
      • 4.1.7 Internet’s simpler charging model
      • 4.1.8 Text names, rather than numbers
  • 5. Transition to IPv6
    • 5.1 IPv6 islands in an IPv4 sea
    • 5.2 Dual stack networks
      • 5.2.1 Two separate address ranges
    • 5.3 Avoiding NAT – Network Address Translation
    • 5.4 IPv6 Benefits
      • 5.4.1 IPv6 Mobility
      • 5.4.2 IPv6 available in most operating systems
  • 6. Related reports
  • Exhibit 1 – Traceroute of Routers between Melbourne and Iceland

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Telecoms Infrastructure

Number of pages 14

Status Archived

Last updated 16 Jan 2007
Update History

Analyst: Robin Whittle

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