Technology - Infrastructure - Networks 1 - Network and Calls


This report discusses the history and current ubiquitous deployment of circuit-switched telephone networks and the analogue POTS and digital ISDN telephone services they operate with. Telephone exchanges, PC- and router-based alternatives to exchanges, ISDN voice and data calls, echo cancellation and voice compression are also discussed.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Synopsis
  • 2. Introduction and historical perspective
    • 2.1 Alternatives to ‘big-iron’ exchanges
  • 3. A circuit-switched network
    • 3.1 The inter-exchange network
    • 3.2 Contrasting the telephone network and the Internet
  • 4. Voice calls
    • 4.1 Analogue POTS telephone calls
      • 4.1.1 Twisted pair copper telephone wires
      • 4.1.2 Echoes and echo cancellation
    • 4.2 Compression of voice signals
      • 4.2.1 Analysis and re-synthesis
    • 4.3 ISDN voice and data calls
      • 4.3.1 Charging for ISDN calls
  • 5. Telephone exchanges
  • 6. Related reports

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Telecoms Infrastructure

Number of pages 9

Status Archived

Last updated 1 Aug 2006
Update History

Analyst: Robin Whittle

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