Technology - Infrastructure - Long Distance 4 - Microwave, Satellite


This report discusses latency, microwave propagation and the reliability and security of PDH and SDH terrestrial microwave links, and the microwave bands used on Earth and for satellite communications. The report describes geostationary and geosynchronous satellite systems, with special focus on direct broadcast and the Thuraya system. Also discussed are the LEO systems Iridium and Globalstar, the MEO ICO system and proposals to use Highly Elliptical Orbits for Western communications satellites.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Synopsis
  • 2. Microwave links
    • 2.1 PDH and SDH microwave links
      • 2.1.1 Line of sight and Fresnel zones
    • 2.2 Reliability and security
  • 3. Microwave Bands
  • 4. Satellite Orbital Configurations
    • 4.1 Geostationary (GEO)
      • 4.1.1 Limitations on number of GEO communications satellites
      • 4.1.2 Lifetime limitations - power and thruster fuel
      • 4.1.3 Point to point and multi-point GEO satellites
      • 4.1.4 Direct Broadcast GEO Satellites
      • 4.1.5 GEO 2-way broadband data
      • 4.1.6 Fixed beams and flexible transponders
      • 4.1.7 Thuraya - steerable beams for telecommunications
      • 4.1.8 Thuraya GSM / Satellite handsets
      • 4.1.9 Latency and geostationary satellites
    • 4.2 Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
      • 4.2.1 Iridium
      • 4.2.2 Globalstar
    • 4.3 Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)
  • 5. Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO)
    • 5.1.1 Ellipso
    • 5.1.2 Pentriad
    • 6. Related repoRts
    • Exhibit 1 – Microwave band terminology

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Broadband Fixed
Telecoms Infrastructure

Number of pages 12

Status Archived

Last updated 6 May 2008
Update History

Analyst: Robin Whittle

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