Technology - Infrastructure - Last Mile 1 - Twisted Pair, POTS, ISDN


The twisted pair copper cables of the Plain Old Telephone Service are also used for ISDN services and for Digital Subscriber Line technologies. We describe twisted-pair’s characteristics, POTS analogue phones, modems and Basic and Primary Rate ISDN. We also discuss the widely deployed pair-gain systems which extend the number of analogue services which can be carried over one pair, but which prevent the deployment of DSL and ISDN services.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Synopsis
  • 2. Introduction and historical perspective
    • 2.1 Twisted pair copper
  • 3. Twisted pair copper for analogue telephony
    • 3.1 Twisted pair cables
      • 3.1.1 Frequency response
      • 3.1.2 Wires twisted to ensure privacy
      • 3.1.3 Pair gain systems
    • 3.2 Analogue telephones, modems and fax machines
      • 3.2.1 Analogue telephone
      • 3.2.2 Modem
      • 3.2.3 Modem standards
  • 4. Twisted pair copper for ISDN
    • 4.1 Basic rate ISDN
      • 4.1.1 2B1Q - North America
      • 4.1.2 4B3T - Europe
      • 4.1.3 TCM - Japan
    • 4.2 Primary rate ISDN and HDSL
    • 4.3 ISDN historical overview
  • 5. Related reports

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Broadband Fixed
Telecoms Infrastructure

Number of pages 10

Status Archived

Last updated 2 Aug 2006
Update History

Analyst: Robin Whittle

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