New biennial report on digital broadcasting technologies covering: propagation of radio waves, analogue broadcasting techniques, spectrum management arrangements, key technical and commercial trends, distinctions between digital broadcasting for stationary video receivers, for mobile receivers and for small handheld devices, ATSC, DVB, ARIB ISDB and DVB-T, MHEG and MHP middleware, transmission standards, RDS and DirectBand, Digital Radio Mondaile, In Band On Channel HD Radio, Eureka 147, WorldSpace, Sirius and XM, MediaFlo and MBSAT ‘T-DMB’, P3, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AAC), Real Networks, Windows Media and Quicktime, VoD and IP multicasting, FttH, FttC, HFC, ADSL and WiMAX, MP3, Spectral Band Replication (SBR), Parametric Stereo and Scalable Lossless Coding, HILN, MPEG-7 metadata and MPEG-21 digital rights management standards (DRM).
This report also contains explanations and analyses of:-
As a prelude to detailed discussion of the various digital broadcasting technologies, we review the propagation of radio waves, the established analogue broadcasting techniques and the resulting spectrum management arrangements in which digital broadcasting takes place. We summarise the key technical and commercial trends and principles we believe characterise the digitisation of broadcasting.
The distinctions between digital broadcasting for stationary video receivers, for mobile receivers and for small handheld devices. DVB standards which are used in most countries for digital video broadcasting. The report also discuss the Japanese ARIB ISDB digital standards, which are similar in principle to DVB-T.
The North American ATSC digital television broadcasting standard differs greatly from the DVB and ISDB techniques used in other countries. Technologies are looked at which affect broadcast television quality and usage, including real-time vs. offline compression and personal video recorders. The report also discusses the MHEG and MHP middleware and transmission standards for digital television receivers.
Three types of digital broadcasting for sound and data applications are discussed. Firstly, the low data rate systems RDS and DirectBand. Then we explain the capabilities and limitations of Digital Radio Mondaile and the two USA-based In Band On Channel HD Radio systems. Finally we discuss the major wideband audio broadcasting system Eureka 147 and the satellite systems of WorldSpace, Sirius and XM.
Broadcasting real-time and stored for replay sound, video and multimedia material to small handheld devices such as cellphones is the “Holy Grail” of both the telecommunications and broadcasting industries. We discuss the needs of such systems and the major approaches to achieving it: Eureka 147 T-DMB, DVB-H, ISDB-Tsb and Qualcomm’s promising MediaFlo. We also discuss the Japanese and South Korean MBSAT ‘T-DMB’ broadcast system.
The report examines open and proprietary standards including MP3, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.264 Advanced Video Coding, Real Networks, Windows Media and Quicktime. Bandwidth restrictions of last-mile technologies such as HFC and ADSL are discussed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of file vs. server streaming for multimedia serving.
The technical principles behind VoD are described, with special reference to IP multicasting, the need for extensive systems integration for all network elements, and the suitability for VoD and ‘triple play’ of the various access technologies: FttH, FttC, HFC, ADSL and WiMAX.
The report discusses Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) and how it improves on MP3. We explain enhancements to both AAC including Spectral Band Replication (SBR), Parametric Stereo and Scalable Lossless Coding. We discuss HILN parametric audio coding and voice compression algorithms including CELP. We also explain the process of MPEG-2 video compression, which is the basis of almost all digital television systems.
Advanced Video Coding (AVC/H.264) improves on MPEG-2 video compression. The MPEG-4 standards are of unprecedented scope, including animation, synthetic sound and video, VRML interactivity and Java. We introduce these technologies and discuss how they can be used together to provide services and communication systems far beyond the modes we are familiar with today. We also discuss the MPEG-7 metadata and MPEG-21 digital rights management standards.
The report discussed MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 audio compression (coding) and major non-MPEG audio coding systems including Real Audio, Windows Media and Vorbis. A detailed explanation of the internal mechanism of MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer III) compression serves as a basis for understanding MP3pro and all other perceptual audio codecs, including AAC.
|1.1||Trends and frequencies|
|1.1.1||Analogue vs digital broadcasting|
|1.1.2||Frequency, wavelength and propagation|
|1.1.3||Analogue TV and radio|
|1.2||DVB and ISD B|
|1.2.1||Distinctions between television, sound and mobile broadcasting|
|1.2.2||Encoding, modulation and transmission subsystems|
|1.2.3||Digital television broadcasting|
|1.3||ATSC and middleware|
|1.3.1||Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) – USA|
|1.3.2||DVD, HDTV and IPTV|
|1.3.3||Digital TV Middleware|
|1.4||Sound and narrowband|
|1.4.1||Narrowband Digital Audio Broadcasting|
|1.4.2||Digital Audio/Multimedia Broadcasting (DAB/DMB)|
|2.1||Broadcasting to handheld devices|
|2.1.1||3G Networks unsuitable|
|2.1.2||Mobile broadcasting requirements|
|2.1.4||Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (T-DMB)|
|2.1.5||MobaHo (MBSAT) CDM direct broadcast satellite|
|2.1.6||South Korean S-DMB|
|2.2||Comparing the major technologies|
|2.2.1||T-DMB vs DVB-H and MediaFLO|
|2.2.3||Frequency domain power reduction|
|2.2.4||Time domain power reduction|
|2.2.5||Time Diversity vs Tune-in Time|
|2.2.6||Channels per Megahertz|
|3.1||Streaming media and conferencing|
|3.1.1||Streaming video and audio|
|3.1.2||Unidirectional and bidirectional streaming|
|3.1.3||Video on demand and bandwidth restrictions|
|3.1.4||Open-standard streaming systems|
|3.1.5||Proprietary streaming systems|
|3.1.6||File download vs. server streaming|
|3.1.7||Commercial aspects of proprietary systems|
|3.2||Video on demand|
|3.2.1||VoD History and futures|
|3.2.2||VoD system functionality|
|3.2.3||Impact of VoD on media industries|
|3.2.4||VoD system requirements|
|3.2.5||QoS and specialised routers/switches|
|3.2.7||Triple play for differing access networks|
|4.||AUDIO VISUAL CODING – MPEG|
|4.1||Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) and video|
|4.1.1||MPEG-2 Transport Stream|
|4.1.2||MPEG-2 audio compression|
|4.1.3||MPEG-2/4 Advanced Audio Coding (AAC)|
|4.1.4||MPEG-4 Parametric Audio Coding – HILN|
|4.1.5||MPEG-2 video compression|
|4.2||Video and Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML)|
|4.2.2||MPEG-4 Video and multimedia compression|
|4.2.3||Advanced Video Coding – H.264/AVC|
|4.2.4||Interactive and VRML elements|
|4.2.6||MPEG-21 Digital Rights Management|
|4.3||MPEG1 and MP3|
|4.3.1||Open standards and licensing|
|4.3.2||Data compression and ‘coding’|
|4.3.3||64kb/s voice with companded 8 bit samples|
|4.3.4||Sample rates and word sizes for music|
|4.3.6||MPEG-1 Audio Layers I and II|
|4.3.7||MPEG-I Audio Layer III (MP3)|
|4.3.8||Other lossy audio compression standards|
|5.||GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS|
|Exhibit 1 – Propagation and antennae characteristics of wavelengths used in broadcasting|
|Exhibit 2 – ITU recommendations for digital broadcasting|
|Exhibit 3 – Selected DVB standards|
|Exhibit 4 – Segment parameters for 6MHz ISDB-T|
|Exhibit 5 – Maximum receiver velocities for DVB-H|
|Exhibit 6 – Adoption of digital broadband technologies|
|Exhibit 7 – H.264/AVC Levels|
Number of pages 142
Last updated 28 Mar 2006
Analyst: Stephen McNamara
In 2009 Paul contacted me and we engaged in the brainstorming sessions that led to the development of the UN Broadband Commission for Digital Development.
Paul is a visionary with a keen strategic approach. He is a powerful communicator, provides succinct analyses and has a complete knowledge of all the key information and communications technologies relating to broadband.
Dr Hamadoun Touré, Secretary General International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 2006-2014
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