2010 Asian - Telecommunications Infrastructure

Publication Overview

This report looks at the infrastructure that supports Asia’s telecommunications markets.

 

Researchers:- Lisa Hulme-Jones, Peter Evans

Current publication date:- January 2010 (15th Edition)

Next publication date:- December 2010

Executive Summary

The regional market has been continuing its overall strong growth phase and with that there has been a correspondingly strong development of infrastructure. The report looks at the telecom infrastructure in each of the region’s economies. Governments across Asia have long recognised – some earlier than others – that there needed to be some encouragement of private sector investment to meet the demand for the all-important investment capital in the telecom sector. At the same time, it was generally well recognised that this strategy could not rely on local investment alone, and would inevitably mean a substantial level of foreign investment. Of course, despite this recognition, there has nevertheless been some resistance within governments to opening up the telecom sector to foreign investors and as a consequence the level of ‘encouragement’ has been variable.

 

The changing nature of the telecom market has also had a major impact on the approach to investment in infrastructure. With shifting revenue patterns across the market segments and falling ARPUs on many services, operators have been more selective about what they actually invest in. Telecom operators throughout Asia have been increasing investment levels on the back of carefully considered investment strategies. This has seen companies shifting business focus, looking for new ways to add value to existing revenue streams; it has also seen a strong desire to leverage new value from infrastructure that is already in place.

 

Over a number of decades the economies of Asia have progressively built substantial fixed-line national networks followed by national mobile networks. In many of the developing nations of the region, the building of fixed-line infrastructure was not far advanced before it was overwhelmed by the introduction of mobile infrastructure. This has created the phenomenon of ‘substitution’ in many of the markets of Asia (where mobile services perform the function of the non-existent fixed services.) Nevertheless, despite the unevenness in disposition, fixed infrastructure remains an important component in the overall development of the region’s telecom sector. By June 2009, Asia had infrastructure in place supporting a total of more than 2.4 billion telephone subscribers; of these, around 570 million were fixed-line subscribers, the remainder of course being mobile subscribers.

 

More recently the focus of infrastructure building has shifted to the upgrading of domestic telecoms networks to Next Generation Networks (NGNs). Basically, this process is seeing large scale investment by Asia’s leading telecoms markets in new-generation IP-based telecommunications networks. Those countries that have government backing for NGN roll-out are the ones that are setting the pace. Even some of the lesser-developed markets are pushing hard on this front.

 

In addition to the national networks, international connectivity remains central to the overall effectiveness of the region’s telecommunications services. Submarine cable routes criss-cross the Asia Pacific area, providing both intra-regional and inter-regional networks. This sector of the market has been characterised by fluctuating supply and demand, which in turn has seen somewhat erratic investment strategies. Over-supply of capacity has been a phenomenon in the market. More recently it has been recognised that investments need to be more focused on growth and less speculative. Starting in 2007 and continuing on into 2009, a series of new submarine cable projects were being proposed and installed throughout the region, mainly trans-Pacific networks aimed at a particular predicted shortfall in capacity between Asia and the US as Asia’s broadband usage started to rapidly increase. However, it was not certain that all these projects would come to fruition, as their respective business cases underwent close scrutiny. The impact of the 2008/09 global financial crisis also needed to be assessed by prospective investors.

 

As the demand for wholesale services has continued to rise in Asia, still driven in the short term by voice services, but in the longer term by data services, there has been a boom in IP-based services, with the volume of international Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) traffic into and out of Asia increasing at a rapid rate at the expense of the traditional International Direct Dial (IDD) traffic. In the short term this has distorted the demand for bandwidth. However, in the longer term, this will inevitably lead to demand for more optical fibre networks to support the necessary increased bandwidth.

 

Asia – key developments in infrastructure – 2008 - 2009

·         Asia had networks and infrastructure supporting a total of more than 2.4 billion telephone subscribers by June 2009; of these, an estimated 570 million were fixed-line subscribers and just under 1.9 billion were mobile subscribers;

·         Asia’s developed markets were starting to move quickly into building their NGNs, with IP shaping as the primary delivery platform for telecom services across the region;

·         After annual growth of close to 30% in the region’s mobile market in 2008, by mid-2009 growth was still up around 20%, despite the general economic uncertainty prevailing in the region;

·         Most significantly, there was considerable pressure on operators to expand infrastructure to support their growing subscriber bases and usage levels;

·         The roll-out of 3G networks in particular saw 3G commercial networks operating in 17 countries across the region by June 2009 for around 170 million 3G subscribers by that stage.

·         It is estimated that Asia needs to invest at least US$1 trillion in new infrastructure over the next ten years to meet projected demand;

·         Asia’s submarine cable market has witnessed a new round of investor interest as the previous over-supply problem seems to have dissipated; increasing demand for bandwidth is putting new pressure on capacity;

·         With a number of serious system outages fresh in the minds of operators, redundancy also become a critical issue for submarine cable systems in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond; this has provided an additional incentive for investment in this form of infrastructure;

·         The region continued to see new satellite launches in 2008/09 and more launches were scheduled in 2009/10; this market segment appeared to have adopted a more balanced approach to growth.

(Source: BuddeComm)

 

Data in this report is the latest available at the time of preparation and may not be for the current year.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Afghanistan
    • 1.1 Overview
    • 1.2 Infrastructure projects
      • 1.2.1 Globecomm contracts
      • 1.2.2 AWCC’s microwave ring
  • 2. Armenia
    • 2.1 Local and national infrastructure
    • 2.2 International infrastructure
  • 3. Azerbaijan
    • 3.1 National telecom network
    • 3.2 International infrastructure
      • 3.2.1 Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) cable network
  • 4. Bangladesh
    • 4.1 National telecom network
      • 4.1.1 Fibre optic networks
      • 4.1.2 Public payphones
      • 4.1.3 Grameen Telecom’s Village Project
      • 4.1.4 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
      • 4.1.5 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
    • 4.2 International infrastructure
      • 4.2.1 International Gateways
      • 4.2.2 Satellite networks
      • 4.2.3 Submarine cable networks
      • 4.2.4 Other fibre links
  • 5. Bhutan
    • 5.1 National telecom network
      • 5.1.1 Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs)
      • 5.1.2 E-Shabtog
    • 5.2 International infrastructure
  • 6. Brunei Darussalam
    • 6.1 National telecom network
      • 6.1.1 Telecommunications development project
      • 6.1.2 Public payphones
      • 6.1.3 GSM payphones
      • 6.1.4 Brunei Information Infrastructure
    • 6.2 International infrastructure
      • 6.2.1 Trans-Borneo Optical Cable Network
      • 6.2.2 Submarine cable networks
      • 6.2.3 Satellite networks
    • 6.3 Infrastructure developments
      • 6.3.1 VoIP
      • 6.3.2 Next Generation Networks (NGN)
  • 7. Cambodia
    • 7.1 National telecom network
    • 7.2 International infrastructure
      • 7.2.1 Greater Mekong Subregion Telecommunications Cooperation Group
  • 8. China
    • 8.1 Overview of infrastructure developments in China
    • 8.2 National telecom networks
      • 8.2.1 Backbone Internet networks
      • 8.2.2 ChinaNet Next Carrying Network (CN2)/IPv6
    • 8.3 International infrastructure
      • 8.3.1 Submarine cable infrastructure
      • 8.3.2 Satellite infrastructure
    • 8.4 IP networks
      • 8.4.1 IP-Virtual Private Network (IP-VPN)
      • 8.4.2 Peer-to-Peer (P2P) streaming
    • 8.5 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
    • 8.6 China’s world first eco city
    • 8.7 Environmental focus for smart grids
      • 8.7.1 Overview
      • 8.7.2 Policy
      • 8.7.3 Call for a modern grid
      • 8.7.4 Smart grid in Anhui Province
    • 8.8 China builds its own Silicon Delta
    • 8.9 Snow storms damage operator infrastructure
    • 8.10 Earthquake response
  • 9. Georgia
    • 9.1 National telecom network
      • 9.1.1 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
    • 9.2 International infrastructure
  • 10. Hong Kong
    • 10.1 Overview
    • 10.2 Mainland connection
    • 10.3 Full liberalisation of FTNS market
      • 10.3.1 Local and STD calls
      • 10.3.2 International calls
    • 10.4 Submarine cable networks
      • 10.4.1 Pacnet Global (formerly Asia Netcom / Asia Global Crossing)
      • 10.4.2 Hutchison Global Telecommunications (Hong Kong)
      • 10.4.3 C2C Pte Ltd / Pacnet Cable
      • 10.4.4 Telstra/PCCW
      • 10.4.5 Tricom Asia Ltd
    • 10.5 Satellite networks
      • 10.5.1 AsiaSat
      • 10.5.2 APStar
      • 10.5.3 Asia Broadcast Satellite
  • 11. India
    • 11.1 National infrastructure
      • 11.1.1 Overview
      • 11.1.2 Network development
      • 11.1.3 National network
      • 11.1.4 Infrastructure sharing
      • 11.1.5 Rural and regional networks
      • 11.1.6 Fibre optic cable projects
      • 11.1.7 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
    • 11.2 International infrastructure
      • 11.2.1 Overview
      • 11.2.2 India-Pakistan
      • 11.2.3 Submarine cable networks
      • 11.2.4 Satellite communications
    • 11.3 Infrastructure developments
      • 11.3.1 VoIP(VoIP)
      • 11.3.2 IP networks
      • 11.3.3 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
  • 12. Indonesia
    • 12.1 National infrastructure
      • 12.1.1 Overview
      • 12.1.2 Infrastructure developments
      • 12.1.3 KSO ventures – five-zone plan
      • 12.1.4 Rural telephony
      • 12.1.5 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
    • 12.2 International infrastructure
      • 12.2.1 International gateway exchanges
      • 12.2.2 Submarine cable networks
      • 12.2.3 Satellite networks
  • 13. Japan
    • 13.1 Overview of infrastructure developments in Japan
    • 13.2 The push to develop NGN standards
    • 13.3 Opening up the last mile
    • 13.4 Regulatory issues
      • 13.4.1 Policy on national information superhighway
      • 13.4.2 IT Basic Strategy
      • 13.4.3 Government plan for ubiquitous networks
    • 13.5 Broadband networks
    • 13.6 International submarine cable infrastructure
    • 13.7 Data centres
    • 13.8 Satellite infrastructure
      • 13.8.1 Overview of major satellite operators
      • 13.8.2 JSAT
      • 13.8.3 Broadcasting Satellite System Corporation of Tokyo (BSAT)
      • 13.8.4 Space Communications Corporation (SCC)
      • 13.8.5 PanAmSat
  • 14. Kazakhstan
    • 14.1 National infrastructure
      • 14.1.1 NGN development
      • 14.1.2 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
    • 14.2 International infrastructure
      • 14.2.1 Trans Asia-Europe (TAE)
      • 14.2.2 Satellite networks
  • 15. Kyrgyzstan
    • 15.1 National telecom network
    • 15.2 International infrastructure
  • 16. Laos
    • 16.1 National telecom network
      • 16.1.1 Rural Telecom Project
    • 16.2 International infrastructure
      • 16.2.1 Terrestrial cable links
      • 16.2.2 Asian Development Bank Backbone Telecommunications Network
      • 16.2.3 Proposed satellite system
  • 17. Macau
    • 17.1 Domestic and international infrastructure
  • 18. Malaysia
    • 18.1 Overview
    • 18.2 National telecom network development
      • 18.2.1 Customer Access Network (CAN)
      • 18.2.2 Fixed-line networks
      • 18.2.3 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
      • 18.2.4 Fibre optic backbones
      • 18.2.5 National numbering plan
      • 18.2.6 Corporate Information Superhighway (COINS)
      • 18.2.7 Infrastructure audit
      • 18.2.8 Universal Service Provision (USP)
      • 18.2.9 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
      • 18.2.10 Internet Protocol TV (IPTV)
      • 18.2.11 National broadband network
    • 18.3 International infrastructure
      • 18.3.1 International gateways
      • 18.3.2 Submarine cable networks
      • 18.3.3 Terrestrial cable networks
      • 18.3.4 Satellite networks
    • 18.4 VoIP
  • 19. Maldives
    • 19.1 National telecom network
    • 19.2 International infrastructure
      • 19.2.1 Satellite networks
      • 19.2.2 Submarine cable networks
  • 20. Mongolia
    • 20.1 National telecom network
      • 20.1.1 Rural services
    • 20.2 International infrastructure
    • 20.3 Telecoms & IT
      • 20.3.1 Chronological data of ICT developments in Mongolia
  • 21. Myanmar
    • 21.1 National infrastructure
      • 21.1.1 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
    • 21.2 International infrastructure
      • 21.2.1 Satellite networks
  • 22. Nepal
    • 22.1 National telecom network
      • 22.1.1 Nepal East West SDH project
    • 22.2 International infrastructure
  • 23. North Korea
    • 23.1 National telecom network
      • 23.1.1 Telecommunications modernisation plans
    • 23.2 International infrastructure
      • 23.2.1 Satellite networks
      • 23.2.2 International calls
  • 24. Pakistan
    • 24.1 National telecom network
      • 24.1.1 Fibre optic networks
      • 24.1.2 Broadband networks
      • 24.1.3 Payphones and PCOs
      • 24.1.4 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
      • 24.1.5 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
    • 24.2 International infrastructure
      • 24.2.1 Submarine cable networks
      • 24.2.2 Satellite networks and systems
      • 24.2.3 VSAT networks
      • 24.2.4 Paksat Project
    • 24.3 Infrastructure developments
      • 24.3.1 VoIP
      • 24.3.2 IP networks
  • 25. Philippines
    • 25.1 Overview
    • 25.2 National telecom network
      • 25.2.1 Service Area Scheme (SAS)
      • 25.2.2 Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity
      • 25.2.3 National long-distance
      • 25.2.4 Payphones
    • 25.3 International infrastructure
      • 25.3.1 International gateways
      • 25.3.2 Submarine cable networks
      • 25.3.3 Satellite systems
      • 25.3.4 Carriers’ Carriers
      • 25.3.5 Common carriers
    • 25.4 Infrastructure developments
      • 25.4.1 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
      • 25.4.2 VoIP
      • 25.4.3 VSAT services
      • 25.4.4 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
  • 26. Singapore
    • 26.1 National telecom network
      • 26.1.1 Overview
      • 26.1.2 Introduction of 8-digit fixed-line numbering format
      • 26.1.3 StarHub’s network
      • 26.1.4 The MobileOne Network
      • 26.1.5 Fixed-mobile convergence (FMC)
      • 26.1.6 Triple play services
      • 26.1.7 Next Generation National Infocomm Infrastructure (Next Gen NII)
    • 26.2 International infrastructure
      • 26.2.1 Submarine cable networks
      • 26.2.2 Terrestrial cable networks
      • 26.2.3 Satellite networks
    • 26.3 Infrastructure developments
      • 26.3.1 International services
      • 26.3.2 VoIP
      • 26.3.3 IP networks
      • 26.3.4 IP-Virtual Private Networks (IP-VPN)
  • 27. South Korea
    • 27.1 Overview
    • 27.2 Overview of infrastructure developments in South Korea
      • 27.2.1 Infrastructure investment overview
      • 27.2.2 Korean Information Infrastructure (KII) project
      • 27.2.3 IT839 Strategy
      • 27.2.4 Next Generation Network (NGN)
      • 27.2.5 Ubiquitous Korea (u-Korea)
      • 27.2.6 Master plans for an information society
    • 27.3 National telecom network
      • 27.3.1 Major national infrastructure players
      • 27.3.2 National submarine cable infrastructure
    • 27.4 International infrastructure
      • 27.4.1 International submarine cable infrastructure
      • 27.4.2 Satellite infrastructure
  • 28. Sri Lanka
    • 28.1 Overview
    • 28.2 National telecom network
      • 28.2.1 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
      • 28.2.2 Fibre optic network
      • 28.2.3 Payphones
      • 28.2.4 Numbering plan
      • 28.2.5 Internet Protocol (IP) networks
      • 28.2.6 Rural communications
    • 28.3 International infrastructure
    • 28.4 Telecom City Project
  • 29. Taiwan
    • 29.1 Overview
    • 29.2 Submarine cable networks
    • 29.3 Satellite networks
  • 30. Tajikistan
    • 30.1 National and international infrastructure
    • 30.2 Infrastructure developments
      • 30.2.1 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
  • 31. Thailand
    • 31.1 National telecom network
      • 31.1.1 Overview
      • 31.1.2 Fixed-line network
      • 31.1.3 Next Generation Network (NGN)
      • 31.1.4 Public payphones
      • 31.1.5 Fibre-to-the-Home (FttH)
    • 31.2 International infrastructure
      • 31.2.1 Submarine cable networks
      • 31.2.2 Submarine cable outages
      • 31.2.3 Terrestrial cable networks
      • 31.2.4 Satellite networks
  • 32. Timor Leste
    • 32.1 National infrastructure
    • 32.2 International infrastructure
      • 32.2.1 Satellite networks
  • 33. Turkmenistan
    • 33.1 National and international infrastructure
      • 33.1.1 Fibre optic networks
  • 34. Uzbekistan
    • 34.1 National telecom network
      • 34.1.1 Fibre optic cables
    • 34.2 Satellite communications
  • 35. Vietnam
    • 35.1 National telecom network
      • 35.1.1 Background to development
      • 35.1.2 Payphones
      • 35.1.3 Coordination of infrastructure development
      • 35.1.4 Next Generation Networks (NGNs)
      • 35.1.5 Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
    • 35.2 National infrastructure projects
      • 35.2.1 SK Telecom
    • 35.3 International infrastructure
      • 35.3.1 Submarine cable networks
      • 35.3.2 Satellite networks
      • Table 1 – Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity in Afghanistan – 1994; 2000 - 2009
      • Table 2 – Fixed lines installed in Afghanistan - 2002 - 2006
      • Table 3 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Armenia – 1991 - 2009
      • Table 4 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Azerbaijan – 1995 - 2008
      • Table 5 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Bangladesh – 1995 - 2009
      • Table 6 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Bhutan – 1995 - 2009
      • Table 7 – Fixed lines in service in Brunei Darussalam – 1990 - 2009
      • Table 8 – Fixed lines in service in Cambodia – 1995 - 2008
      • Table 9 – Network distribution of bandwidth in China – 2004 - 2008
      • Table 10 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Georgia – 1995 - 2008
      • Table 11 – Fixed-line operators - subscribers and market share in Georgia – May 2008
      • Table 12 – Fixed-lines in service and teledensity in Hong Kong – 1994 – 2010; 2015; 2020
      • Table 13 – External telephone traffic volume in minutes in Hong Kong – 1997 – 2008
      • Table 14 – External telecommunications facilities capacity of Hong Kong – 2000 – 2009
      • Table 15 – AsiaSat financial data – 2005 - 2008
      • Table 16 – AsiaSat satellite utilisation – 2005 - 2009
      • Table 17 – AsiaSat sources of revenue by business segment – 2007-2008
      • Table 18 – APT Sat revenue and profit – 2001 – 2008
      • Table 19 – APT Sat satellite utilisation – 2003 – 2008
      • Table 20 – APT sources of revenue by business segment – 2007-2008
      • Table 21 – Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity in India – 2005 - 2009
      • Table 22 – Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity (historic) in India – 1995 - 2005
      • Table 23 – Growth of VPT scheme in India – 2001 - 2008
      • Table 24 – PCOs in operation and market share by operator in India – 2008
      • Table 25 – Fixed WLL subscribers in India (historical) – 2004 - 2006
      • Table 26 – International undersea cable capacity in India – 1997 - 2008
      • Table 27 – National network statistics for Indonesia – 2005 - 2008
      • Table 28 – Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity in Indonesia – 1995 - 2009
      • Table 29 – Fixed-line subscribers and annual change by operator in Indonesia – 2008
      • Table 30 – Five-year USO deployment of lines plan for villages in Indonesia – 2006 - 2010
      • Table 31 – Fixed wireless (WLL) subscribers by operator in Indonesia – 2008
      • Table 32 – PT Telkom fixed wireless subscribers – 2008
      • Table 33 – Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity in Japan – 1993 - 2008
      • Table 34 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Kazakhstan – 1995 - 2009
      • Table 35 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Kyrgyzstan – 1991 - 2008
      • Table 36 – Fixed lines in service in Laos – 1995 - 2008
      • Table 37 – Fixed-lines and teledensity in Macau – 1991 - 2008
      • Table 38 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Malaysia – 1995 - 2009
      • Table 39 – Fixed-line household penetration rate in Malaysia – 2000 - 2009
      • Table 40 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in the Maldives – 1995 - 2009
      • Table 41 – Fixed-line subscribers by region in the Maldives – March 2009
      • Table 42 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Mongolia – 1994 - 2008
      • Table 43 – Wireless local loop (WLL) lines in service in Mongolia – 2003 - 2008
      • Table 44 – Fixed lines in service in Myanmar – 1990, 1995 - 2009
      • Table 45 – Fixed-lines in service and teledensity in Nepal – 1995 - 2009
      • Table 46 – Fixed WLL subscribers in Nepal – 2006; 2008; 2009
      • Table 47 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in North Korea – 1990 - 2005
      • Table 48 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Pakistan – 1991 - 2009
      • Table 49 – WLL subscribers in Pakistan – 2005 - 2009
      • Table 50 – WLL subscribers by operator and market share in Pakistan – July 2009
      • Table 51 – Fixed subscriber growth in Pakistan – wireline and wireless (WLL) – 2004 - 2008
      • Table 52 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in the Philippines – 1994 - 2007
      • Table 53 – Total SAS lines installed by operators at target date in the Philippines – end-2002
      • Table 54 – Fixed lines installed vs lines in operation and penetration rate in the Philippines – 1995 - 2007
      • Table 55 - Fixed lines in service and penetration rate in Singapore - 1998 - 2008
      • Table 56 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in South Korea – 1991 - 2008
      • Table 57 – Fixed-line subscribers and market share by operator in South Korea – 2008
      • Table 58 – KT Corp fixed-line subscribers and market share – 2003 - 2009
      • Table 59 – Number portability of fixed-line services in South Korea – 2003 - 2007
      • Table 60 – Local telephony lines by operator in South Korea – 2005 - 2008
      • Table 61 – Local telephony market share by operator in South Korea – 2005 - 2008
      • Table 62 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Sri Lanka – 1995 - 2009
      • Table 63 – WLL subscribers in Sri Lanka – 1996 - 2009
      • Table 64 – Fixed lines in service & penetration in Taiwan – 1995 - 2008
      • Table 65 – Call volumes for fixed networks in Taiwan – 1999 - 2007
      • Table 66 – International outgoing calls overview for Taiwan – 1980; 1985; 1990; 1995; 2000 - 2007
      • Table 67 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Tajikistan – 1995 - 2009
      • Table 68 – Fixed lines and teledensity in Thailand – 1995 - 2009
      • Table 69 – Fixed-line subscribers by operator in Thailand – 2008
      • Table 70 – Public payphones in service in Thailand – 2004 - 2009
      • Table 71 – Public payphones by provider in Thailand – 2008
      • Table 72 – Fixed lines in service in Timor Leste – 1995; 1998 - 2000; 2003 - 2009
      • Table 73 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Turkmenistan – 1991 - 2009
      • Table 74 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Uzbekistan – 1991 - 2009
      • Table 75 – Fixed lines in service and teledensity in Vietnam – 1990 - 2008
      • Exhibit 1 – Major submarine cables with landing points in Brunei Darussalam - 2007
      • Exhibit 2 – Regional/international fibre optic cable networks in China
      • Exhibit 3 – Selected Chinese satellite service providers and satellites
      • Exhibit 4 – China Satcom satellite fleet
      • Exhibit 5 – Fixed Telecommunications Network Services licensees in Hong Kong – October 2008
      • Exhibit 6 – Major submarine cables with landing points in Hong Kong - 2008
      • Exhibit 7 – External FTNS licensees in Hong Kong – October 2009
      • Exhibit 8 – Satellite-based external FTNS licensees in Hong Kong – October 2009
      • Exhibit 9 – ISRO satellite network - May 2009
      • Exhibit 10 – Original consortia, and KSO operating in each geographical zone in Indonesia
      • Exhibit 11 – Indonesian satellites – 2008
      • Exhibit 12 – Major global/regional submarine cables with landing points in Japan - 2008
      • Exhibit 13 – Construction of the National Information Highway (NIH) backbone in Kazakhstan
      • Exhibit 14 – Chronological events of ICT developments in Mongolia
      • Exhibit 15 – Major submarine cables with landing points in the Philippines - 2008
      • Exhibit 16 – International submarine cable systems with landing points in Singapore - 2009
      • Exhibit 17 – Informatization policies and paradigms in South Korea – 1998 - 2012
      • Exhibit 18 – Informatization Promotion in South Korea: Execution body
      • Exhibit 19 – Overview of national submarine fibre optic cables in South Korea
      • Exhibit 20 – International submarine fibre optic cables overview in South Korea
      • Exhibit 21 – External Gateway Operator (EGO) licences in Sri Lanka
      • Exhibit 22 – Major global/regional submarine cables with landing point in Taiwan - 2008
      • Exhibit 23 – Thaicom’s satellite network - 2009

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Last updated 18 Jan 2010
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