2008 Latin America - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband in Central America

Publication Overview

The Central American countries are Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, all of which are small countries with generally low GDP per capita but with considerable scope for development in all telecom sectors. This annual report offers a wealth of information on the trends and developments in fixed-line telephony, mobile telephony, Internet, broadband, digital TV, and converging media including VoIP and IPTV developments. Subjects include:

·         Key statistics and forecasts;

·         Market and industry overviews;

·         Government policies and regulatory issues;

·         Historical information;

·         Major players (fixed-line, mobile, broadband, and pay TV);

·         Telecom infrastructure (national and international, fixed and wireless);

·         Mobile voice and data markets;

·         Internet market and VoIP;

·         Broadband (DSL, cable, wireless);

·         Convergence, pay TV, and developments in digital TV.

 

Researcher: Lucia Bibolini

Edition: 7th

Current Publication date: February 2008

Next Publication date: February 2009

 

Executive Summary

BuddeComm’s Annual Publication on the Central American countries – 2008 Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband in Latin America the Central American Countries profiles seven small countries, ranging in size from 20,720 sq km (El Salvador) to 120,254 sq km (Nicaragua), and in population from 311,000 people (Belize) to 13.3 million people Guatemala.

 

Poverty is more widespread in these countries than in the rest of Latin America, and this is reflected in the development of telecommunications. Apart from Costa Rica, fixed-line teledensity in the Central American nations is lower than average for Latin America, while in mobile telephony, only El Salvador and Panama are slightly above the regional average. Nevertheless, all telecoms markets are growing. Investment opportunities are promising, and there is good scope for the testing of new technologies, particularly in the areas of wireless systems, mobile phones, and broadband.

 

This report presents a concise overview of sector liberalisation and privatisation in the Central American sub-region, government initiatives and regulations in the telecom industry, the development of product offerings for both mobile and broadband technologies, essential country and operator statistics in all telecom sectors, and the emergence of convergence and triple play.

 

Key highlights

·         Liberalisation of the fixed-line market is at different stages, from Guatemala, which has been open to competition since 1996, to Costa Rica, which remains a state-owned monopoly. Interestingly, we find that Costa Rica’s fixed-line teledensity is one of the highest in Latin America and well beyond what could be expected given its other macroeconomic indicators. Teledensity in Guatemala, on the other hand, is about 40% lower than the overall Latin American average, which would indicate that fixed-line privatisation and competition are no guarantee of development in this market. Nevertheless, Guatemala’s teledensity is no more and no less than would be expected given the country’s other macroeconomic indicators.

·         Honduras has yet to privatise its telecom incumbent, and has only partially liberalised its fixed-line market. Differently from Costa Rica, teledensity is low, only slightly higher than would be expected considering Honduras’s other macroeconomic indicators.

·         Guatemala, El Salvador, and Panama have fully privatised and liberalised their fixed-line markets, and competition is growing, especially thanks to fixed-wireless deployments.

·         Nicaragua and Belize have privatised their fixed-line incumbents. They have also theoretically liberalised their fixed-line sectors, but proper implementation has been delayed by political and legal wrangles. These countries present the worst case scenarios in Central America in terms of fixed-line development, since privatisation without liberalisation places a telecom incumbent in a position of hegemony where it can charge high prices and is under little pressure to improve services.

·         Due to low fixed-line teledensity, the nations of Central America have leapfrogged directly into mobile communications. Mobile competition is keen, and penetration is far higher that would be expected considering their other macroeconomic indicators. Costa Rica is the only exception, and a colossal one, since it has a single state-owned mobile company, no prepaid cards, and an abysmally low mobile penetration compared with its relatively high GDP per capita. This is a good indication that mobile telephony thrives best in private hands and in a competitive environment. Costa Rica’s mobile market, however, is in the process of liberalisation. With the start of competition and the introduction of prepaid plans, mobile telephony is expected to soar. For the country overview, see chapter 2, page 14.

·         Broadband uptake varies greatly among these seven countries – from a penetration of around 2.2% in Costa Rica, to less than 0.4% in Nicaragua and Honduras.

·         In Panama, the country that is slated to be Latin America’s best performer in terms of economic growth, broadband penetration is only 0.6%, far lower than would be expected considering its GDP per capita. The provision of ADSL in Panama is dominated by the incumbent, but there is good scope for investment in alternative technologies. For the country overview, see chapter 7, page 92.

·         Despite the generally low telecoms indicators in Central America, these countries have witnessed some of the region’s most advanced technological deployments, such as IPTV in Panama, High Definition TV in Honduras, and WiMAX in El Salvador. This phenomenon is partly due to the leapfrogging of conventional systems often found in developing countries, and partly due to the sharp social disparities, where certain urban areas, particularly in capital cities, enjoy first world telecom services, while rural areas lack even basic telephony.

 

Mobile penetration and annual growth in Central America countries – September 2007

Country

Penetration

Annual growth

Belize

53.3%

14%

Costa Rica

31.9%

1%

El Salvador

65.8%

51%

Guatemala

61.4%

47%

Honduras

46.3%

80%

Nicaragua

40.2%

42%

Panama

72.4%

29%

(Source: BuddeComm)

 

For those needing high-level strategic information and objective analysis on this region, this report is essential reading and gives further information on:

·         Regulatory developments and spectrum auctions;

·         Fixed-line developments, including the adoption of alternative technologies such as VoIP;

·         Mobile telephony growth, and the up-take of mobile data services;

·         Broadband growth and the incursion into wireless technologies such as WiMAX;

·         Convergence, triple play, High Definition TV, IPTV, and other new technologies;

·         Scenario forecasts for the fixed line and mobile market in Panama.

Data in this report is the latest available at the time of preparation and may not be for the current year.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Belize
    • 1.1 Key statistics
    • 1.2 Telecommunications market
      • 1.2.1 Overview of Belize’s telecom market
    • 1.3 Regulatory environment
      • 1.3.1 Background
      • 1.3.2 Regulatory authority
      • 1.3.3 Telecom sector liberalisation
    • 1.4 Telecom network operators in Belize
      • 1.4.1 Overview of operators
      • 1.4.2 Belize Telemedia Limited (BTL)
    • 1.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
      • 1.5.1 National telecom networks
      • 1.5.2 Infrastructure developments
      • 1.5.3 International infrastructure
    • 1.6 Internet market
      • 1.6.1 Overview
    • 1.7 Broadband market
    • 1.8 Convergence
      • 1.8.1 Overview of media convergence
      • 1.8.2 Overview of broadcasting market
    • 1.9 Mobile communications
      • 1.9.1 Overview of Belize’s mobile market
      • 1.9.2 Mobile technologies and data services
      • 1.9.3 Major mobile operators
  • 2. Costa Rica
    • 2.1 Key statistics
    • 2.2 Telecommunications market
      • 2.2.1 Overview of Costa Rica’s telecom market
    • 2.3 Regulatory environment
      • 2.3.1 Background
      • 2.3.2 Regulatory authority
      • 2.3.3 Telecom sector liberalisation
      • 2.3.4 DR-CAFTA
    • 2.4 Telecom network operators in Costa Rica
      • 2.4.1 ICE
    • 2.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
      • 2.5.1 National telecom networks
      • 2.5.2 International infrastructure
      • 2.5.3 Infrastructure developments
    • 2.6 Internet market
      • 2.6.1 Overview
    • 2.7 Broadband market
      • 2.7.1 Overview
      • 2.7.2 Cable modems
      • 2.7.3 Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
      • 2.7.4 Broadband over Powerline (BPL)
      • 2.7.5 Wireless broadband
    • 2.8 Convergence
      • 2.8.1 Overview of media convergence
      • 2.8.2 Cable TV (CATV)
      • 2.8.3 Satellite TV
    • 2.9 Mobile communications
      • 2.9.1 Overview of Costa Rica’s mobile market
      • 2.9.2 Mobile technologies and data services
      • 2.9.3 Major mobile operators
  • 3. El Salvador
    • 3.1 Key statistics
    • 3.2 Telecommunications market
      • 3.2.1 Overview of El Salvador’s telecom market
    • 3.3 Regulatory environment
      • 3.3.1 Telecommunications law
      • 3.3.2 Regulatory authority
      • 3.3.3 Privatisation of Antel
      • 3.3.4 Telecom sector liberalisation in El Salvador
      • 3.3.5 DR-CAFTA
    • 3.4 Telecom network operators in El Salvador
      • 3.4.1 Overview of operators
      • 3.4.2 CTE Telecom (América Móvil)
      • 3.4.3 Telefónica
    • 3.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
      • 3.5.1 National telecom networks
      • 3.5.2 International infrastructure
      • 3.5.3 Infrastructure developments
    • 3.6 Internet market
      • 3.6.1 Overview
    • 3.7 Broadband market
      • 3.7.1 Overview
      • 3.7.2 Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
      • 3.7.3 WiMAX
    • 3.8 Convergence
      • 3.8.1 Overview of media convergence
      • 3.8.2 Cable TV
      • 3.8.3 Satellite TV
    • 3.9 Mobile communications
      • 3.9.1 Overview of El Salvador’s mobile market
      • 3.9.2 Mobile technologies and data services
      • 3.9.3 Major mobile operators
  • 4. Guatemala
    • 4.1 Key statistics
    • 4.2 Telecommunications market
      • 4.2.1 Overview of Guatemala’s telecom market
    • 4.3 Regulatory environment
      • 4.3.1 History
      • 4.3.2 Regulatory authority
      • 4.3.3 Telecom sector liberalisation in Guatemala
      • 4.3.4 Privatisation of Guatel/Telgua
      • 4.3.5 DR-CAFTA
      • 4.3.6 Interconnection
      • 4.3.7 Foreign investments
    • 4.4 Telecom network operators in Guatemala
      • 4.4.1 Overview of operators
      • 4.4.2 Telgua (América Móvil)
      • 4.4.3 TEM Guatemala (Telefónica)
    • 4.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
      • 4.5.1 National telecom networks
      • 4.5.2 International infrastructure
      • 4.5.3 Infrastructure developments
    • 4.6 Internet market
      • 4.6.1 Overview
    • 4.7 Broadband market
      • 4.7.1 Overview
      • 4.7.2 Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
      • 4.7.3 WiFi
      • 4.7.4 WiMAX
      • 4.7.5 Broadband providers
    • 4.8 Convergence
      • 4.8.1 Overview of media convergence
      • 4.8.2 Cable TV
      • 4.8.3 Satellite TV
    • 4.9 Mobile communications
      • 4.9.1 Overview of Guatemala’s mobile market
      • 4.9.2 Mobile technologies and data services
      • 4.9.3 Major mobile operators
      • 4.9.4 Mobile voice services in Guatemala
  • 5. Honduras
    • 5.1 Key statistics
    • 5.2 Telecommunications market
      • 5.2.1 Overview of Honduran telecom market
    • 5.3 Regulatory environment
      • 5.3.1 Regulatory authority
      • 5.3.2 Privatisation
      • 5.3.3 DR-CAFTA
      • 5.3.4 Foreign investment
      • 5.3.5 Telecom sector liberalisation in Honduras
      • 5.3.6 ‘Telephony For All’ program
    • 5.4 Telecom network operators in Honduras
      • 5.4.1 Hondutel
      • 5.4.2 Multifon
      • 5.4.3 Tele+ (Comunitel)
    • 5.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
      • 5.5.1 National telecom networks
      • 5.5.2 International infrastructure
      • 5.5.3 Infrastructure developments
    • 5.6 Internet market
      • 5.6.1 Overview
    • 5.7 Broadband market
      • 5.7.1 Overview
    • 5.8 Convergence
      • 5.8.1 Overview of media convergence
      • 5.8.2 Cable TV
      • 5.8.3 Satellite TV
      • 5.8.4 Digital terrestrial TV
    • 5.9 Mobile communications
      • 5.9.1 Overview of the Honduran mobile market
      • 5.9.2 Mobile technologies and data services
      • 5.9.3 Major mobile operators
  • 6. Nicaragua
    • 6.1 Key statistics
    • 6.2 Telecommunications market
      • 6.2.1 Overview of Nicaragua’s telecom market
    • 6.3 Regulatory environment
      • 6.3.1 Background
      • 6.3.2 Regulatory authority
      • 6.3.3 Privatisation
      • 6.3.4 Telecom sector liberalisation in Nicaragua
      • 6.3.5 DR-CAFTA
    • 6.4 Telecom network operators in Nicaragua
      • 6.4.1 Enitel
      • 6.4.2 Movistar (Telefónica)
    • 6.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
      • 6.5.1 National telecom networks
      • 6.5.2 International infrastructure
      • 6.5.3 Infrastructure developments
    • 6.6 Internet market
      • 6.6.1 Overview
    • 6.7 Broadband market
      • 6.7.1 Overview
    • 6.8 Convergence
      • 6.8.1 Overview of media convergence
      • 6.8.2 Cable TV (CATV)
      • 6.8.3 Satellite TV
    • 6.9 Mobile communications
      • 6.9.1 Overview of Nicaragua’s mobile market
      • 6.9.2 Mobile technologies and data services
      • 6.9.3 Major mobile operators
      • 6.9.4 Satellite mobile
  • 7. Panama
    • 7.1 Key statistics
    • 7.2 Telecommunications market
      • 7.2.1 Overview of Panama’s telecom market
    • 7.3 Regulatory environment
      • 7.3.1 Regulatory authority
      • 7.3.2 Privatisation of INTEL
      • 7.3.3 Telecom sector liberalisation
      • 7.3.4 Number portability
      • 7.3.5 Free Trade Agreement
    • 7.4 Telecom network operators in Panama
      • 7.4.1 Cable & Wireless Panamá
      • 7.4.2 Telecarrier
      • 7.4.3 Galaxy Communications Corp (ClaroCOM)
      • 7.4.4 Advanced Communication Network
      • 7.4.5 Optynex Telecom
    • 7.5 Telecommunications infrastructure
      • 7.5.1 National telecom networks
      • 7.5.2 International infrastructure
      • 7.5.3 Infrastructure developments
    • 7.6 Internet market
      • 7.6.1 Overview
    • 7.7 Broadband market
      • 7.7.1 Overview
    • 7.8 Convergence
      • 7.8.1 Overview of media convergence
      • 7.8.2 Triple play models
      • 7.8.3 Cable TV
      • 7.8.4 Satellite TV
      • 7.8.5 IPTV (Broadband TV)
    • 7.9 Mobile communications
      • 7.9.1 Overview of Panama’s mobile market
      • 7.9.2 Spectrum auction – March 2008
      • 7.9.3 Mobile technologies and data services
      • 7.9.4 Major mobile operators
    • 7.10 Forecasts
      • 7.10.1 Forecasts – fixed-line market to 2017
      • 7.10.2 Forecasts – mobile services to 2017
  • 8. Glossary of Abbreviations
  • Table 1 – Country statistics Belize – 2008
  • Table 2 – Telephone network statistics – 2007
  • Table 3 – Internet user statistics – 2007
  • Table 4 – Broadband statistics – 2007
  • Table 5 – Mobile statistics – 2007
  • Table 6 – National telecommunications authority
  • Table 7 – BTL – Fixed lines, annual change, and payphones - 2002 - 2007
  • Table 8 – Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity - 1996 - 2007
  • Table 9 – Internet users, annual change and user penetration – 1996 - 2007
  • Table 10 – BTL high-speed Internet subscribers, annual change and penetration – 2005 - 2007
  • Table 11 – Mobile subscribers, annual change and penetration - 1999 - 2007
  • Table 12 – Mobile market share by operator - 2005 - 2007
  • Table 13 – BTL mobile subscribers and annual change - 2004 - 2007
  • Table 14 – SpeedNet mobile subscribers and annual change - 2005 - 2007
  • Table 15 – Country statistics Costa Rica – 2008
  • Table 16 – Telephone network statistics – 2007
  • Table 17 – Internet user statistics – 2007
  • Table 18 – Broadband statistics – 2006
  • Table 19 – Mobile statistics – September 2007
  • Table 20 – National telecommunications authority
  • Table 21 – Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity – 1996 - 2007
  • Table 22 – Public payphones and annual change – 2000 - 2006
  • Table 23 – Internet users, annual change and user penetration – 1997 - 2007
  • Table 24 – Dial-up subscribers, annual change and penetration – 1997 - 2006
  • Table 25 – Broadband subscribers, per capita and household penetration – 2000 - 2006
  • Table 26 – Broadband market share by technology – 2003 - 2006
  • Table 27 – Cable modem subscribers, annual change and household penetration – 2000 - 2006
  • Table 28 – ADSL subscribers, annual change and household penetration – 2003 - 2006
  • Table 29 – Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change – September 2007
  • Table 30 – Mobile subscribers, annual change and penetration - 1998 - 2007
  • Table 31 – Country statistics El Salvador – 2008
  • Table 32 – Telephone network statistics – June 2007
  • Table 33 – Internet user statistics – 2006
  • Table 34 – Broadband statistics – June 2007
  • Table 35 – Mobile statistics – June 2006
  • Table 36 – National telecommunications authority
  • Table 37 – Telecom – fixed lines in service and annual change – 2003 - 2007
  • Table 38 – Telefónica – fixed and fixed-wireless lines in service – 2003 - 2007
  • Table 39 – Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity – 1996 - 2007
  • Table 40 – Public payphones and annual change – 1998 - 2007
  • Table 41 – Internet users, annual change and penetration - 1996 - 2006
  • Table 42 – Broadband subscribers, penetration and household penetration – 2003 - 2007
  • Table 43 – ADSL subscribers and annual change – 2003 - 2007
  • Table 44 – Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change – September 2007
  • Table 45 – Mobile subscribers, annual change and penetration – 1998 - 2007
  • Table 46 – Mobile operators’ market share – 2003 - 2007
  • Table 47 – Prepaid/postpaid ratio - 2002 - 2007
  • Table 48 – Claro mobile subscribers and annual change – 2002 - 2007
  • Table 49 – Telemóvil mobile subscribers and annual change – 1996 - 2007
  • Table 50 – Movistar mobile subscribers and annual change – 2000 - 2007
  • Table 51 – Digicel mobile subscribers and annual change – 2002 - 2007
  • Table 52 – RED mobile subscribers and annual change – 2005 - 2007
  • Table 53 – Country statistics Guatemala – 2008
  • Table 54 – Telephone network statistics – June 2007
  • Table 55 – Internet user statistics – 2006
  • Table 56 – Broadband statistics – 2006
  • Table 57 – Mobile statistics – September 2007
  • Table 58 – National telecommunications authority
  • Table 59 – Fixed lines in service – market share by operator – 2002 - 2007
  • Table 60 – Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity – 1996 - 2007
  • Table 61 – Public and community phones – 2003 - 2007
  • Table 62 – Internet users, annual change and penetration – 1997 - 2006
  • Table 63 – Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change - September 2007
  • Table 64 – Mobile subscribers, penetration and annual change - 1997 - 2007
  • Table 65 – Mobile operators’ market share - 2000 - 2007
  • Table 66 – Claro subscribers and annual change – 2000 - 2007
  • Table 67 – Comcel – subscribers and annual change – 2000 - 2007
  • Table 68 – Movistar subscribers and annual change – 2000 - 2007
  • Table 69 – Prepaid/postpaid ratio - 2002 - 2007
  • Table 70 – Country statistics Honduras – 2008
  • Table 71 – Telephone network statistics – September 2007
  • Table 72 – Internet user statistics – 2006
  • Table 73 – Mobile statistics – September 2007
  • Table 74 – National telecommunications authority
  • Table 75 – Market share of fixed lines in service - 2003 - 2007
  • Table 76 – Number of operators: fixed, mobile, data, ISP and CATV markets – 2004 - 2006
  • Table 77 – Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity - 1997 - 2007
  • Table 78 – Public telephones and annual change - 1997 - 2006
  • Table 79 – Internet users, annual change and penetration – 1997 - 2006
  • Table 80 – Internet subscribers, annual change, and penetration – 2002 - 2006
  • Table 81 – Pay TV subscribers and annual change - 2002 - 2006
  • Table 82 – Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change - September 2007
  • Table 83 – Mobile subscribers, annual change and penetration - 1997 - 2007
  • Table 84 – Mobile operators’ market share - 2002 - 2007
  • Table 85 – Prepaid/postpaid ratio - 1997 - 2006
  • Table 86 – Tigo subscribers and annual change - 2000 - 2007
  • Table 87 – Claro subscribers and annual change – 2003 - 2007
  • Table 88 – Country statistics Nicaragua – 2008
  • Table 89 – Telephone network statistics – 2006
  • Table 90 – Internet user statistics – 2006
  • Table 91 – Broadband statistics – 2006
  • Table 92 – Mobile statistics – September 2007
  • Table 93 – National telecommunications authority
  • Table 94 – Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity - 1996 - 2006
  • Table 95 – Public phones and annual change – 1998 - 2007
  • Table 96 – Internet users, annual change and user penetration - 1997 - 2006
  • Table 97 – Internet subscribers and annual change - 2000 - 2006
  • Table 98 – Internet market share by technology – 2000 - 2006
  • Table 99 – Broadband subscribers, penetration and household penetration - 2000 - 2006
  • Table 100 – Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change - September 2007
  • Table 101 – Mobile subscribers and penetration - 2000 - 2007
  • Table 102 – Operators’ mobile market share - 2004 - 2007
  • Table 103 – Postpaid/prepaid ratio - 2003 - 2007
  • Table 104 – Claro subscribers and annual change - 2002 - 2007
  • Table 105 – Movistar subscribers and annual change - 2000 - 2007
  • Table 106 – Country statistics Panama – 2008
  • Table 107 – Telephone network statistics – 2006
  • Table 108 – Internet user statistics – 2006
  • Table 109 – Broadband statistics – 2006
  • Table 110 – Mobile statistics – September 2007
  • Table 111 – National telecommunications authority
  • Table 112 – Number of telecom concessions - March 2007
  • Table 113 – Fixed lines in service, annual change and teledensity - 1998 - 2006
  • Table 114 – Public telephones and annual change - 1998 - 2006
  • Table 115 – Internet users, annual change and user penetration - 1996 - 2006
  • Table 116 – Dial-up subscribers, per capita and household penetration - 1998 - 2006
  • Table 117 – C&WP ADSL subscribers and annual change – 2004 - 2007
  • Table 118 – Broadband subscribers, per capita and household penetration – 1998 - 2006
  • Table 119 – Broadband subscriber ratios by technology – 2000 - 2006
  • Table 120 – Mobile operators, subscribers and annual change – September 2007
  • Table 121 – Mobile subscribers, annual change and penetration - 1997 - 2007
  • Table 122 – Operators’ mobile market share - 2003 - 2007
  • Table 123 – Postpaid/prepaid ratio - 1998 - 2006
  • Table 124 – Forecast fixed-line subscribers – weaker market growth scenario – 2007; 2012; 2017
  • Table 125 – Forecast fixed-line subscribers – stronger market growth scenario – 2007; 2012; 2017
  • Table 126 – Forecast mobile subscribers – weaker market growth scenario – 2007; 2012; 2017
  • Table 127 – Forecast mobile subscribers – stronger market growth scenario – 2007; 2012; 2017
  • Exhibit 1 – Belize Telecommunications Ltd – history prior to 2005
  • Exhibit 2 – Belize Telecommunications Ltd – ownership disputes
  • Exhibit 3 – Major submarine cable networks links in Belize
  • Exhibit 4 – Major submarine cable networks connecting Costa Rica
  • Exhibit 5 – Americatel versus CTE
  • Exhibit 6 – Major submarine cable networks connecting Guatemala
  • Exhibit 7 – BellSouth Guatemala history
  • Exhibit 8 – Major submarine cable networks connecting Honduras
  • Exhibit 9 – Major submarine cable networks connecting Nicaragua
  • Exhibit 10 – Aló PCS history
  • Exhibit 11 – Enitel Movil history
  • Exhibit 12 – Movistar history
  • Exhibit 13 – Major submarine cable networks serving Panama

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Number of pages 122

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Last updated 10 Mar 2008
Update History

Analyst: Stephen McNamara

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